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Hardening

Hardening
There are two alternative methods of induction hardening: conventional “scanning hardening” and the less common “single-shot hardening”. This article looks at the induction hardening process and discusses these options.
Those of us who work in automotive-related industries must sometimes feel we are faced with mission impossible. On one side there is the relentless pressure to squeeze costs, timelines and so on. On the other, there is the growing demand for smaller, lighter and more efficient components and assemblies. And nowhere are these contradictions more evident than with crankshafts.
In vielen Bereichen der Industrie ist aufgrund gestiegener Energiepreise und dem wachsenden Umweltbewusstsein die Energieeffizienz von Maschinen ein äußerst wichtiger Aspekt. Dem Wirkungsgrad von Induktionserwärmungsanlagen, welche Nennleistungen bis in den MW-Bereich generieren, kommt somit eine besondere Bedeutung zu. Aufgrund des gestiegenen Bedarfs nach zuverlässigen Lösungen und den hohen Anforderungen an die Bauteile, erfährt die Induktion als Verfahren zum Randschichthärten eine hohe Nachfrage.
There are many benefits to be reaped from contour spin hardening with the multifrequency method. The induction heating method used for small- and medium-sized gears is often referred to as spin hardening. This is because the gear is placed within an induction coil and spins as eddy currents are induced.
Induction hardening is being increasingly used within the gear industry. However, before looking at the advantages of the method, it is helpful to review the basics of the technology. The phenomenen of induction heating begins by passing an alternating current through a coil in order to generate a magnetic field.
Easy integration into production flows has made the inductive spin hardening of gears increasingly popular in recent years. Dr. Hansjürg Stiele of EFD Induction explains the basics behind the method.
When it comes to crankshafts, engine component manufacturers are caught between the proverbial rock and a hard place. On one hand, car-, truck- and ship-makers are relentless in their pursuit of lower costs. On the other, performance requirements are becoming ever more stringent.
The elongation potential model simplifies the explanation of residual stress creation during surface hardening. It is widely accepted that residual stress can have a significant impact on the fatigue strength of hardened components.
EFD Induction is best known in the automotive business for its hardening and tempering solutions. These are used to treat a wide range of steering, driveline and transmission components, as well as crankshafts, camshafts, gears, drive shafts, output shafts, torsion bars, rocker arms, CV joints, tulips and valves.
Achieving shorter manufacturing lead times is one of many advantages of using EFD’s induction-based hardening solutions. More and more companies are opting for induction-based hardening solutions – and there are four key reasons that make induction hardening such an attractive choice for OEMs and suppliers.
New nomographs for induction surface hardening of steel showing the relations between surface power density, frequency, heating time, maximum surface temperature, and austenitisation depth have been calculated. Coupled electromagnetic and transient thermal 1D (ELTA) and 2D (Flux2D) simulations with nonlinear material properties have been used. A relative workpiece dimension factor is introduced to take into account the influence of the workpiece size.